The Brinell Hardness Test is the
oldest method of hardness
testing commonly used today. The Brinell test was invented in Sweden by Dr.
Johan August Brinell in 1900. This test is often used to determine the hardness
of castings and forgings
whose grain structure is too course for accurate Rockwell or Vickers testing.
Almost all metals may be tested with the Brinell test by simply varying the ball
size and test force. As long as the ball size to test force ratio remains
constant, the results are considered accurate.
Results from the Brinell Hardness
Test are used extensively in industry as a basis of
acceptance of commercial shipments, and for quality control purposes generally.
These result may correlate with metallic characteristics such as: ductility,
tensile strength, wear resistance, etc.,
The Brinell Test is an indentation
hardness test consisting of two steps. Step one, the
indenter is brought in contact with the tests specimen perpendicular to the
surface and the specified test force is applied. The test force held for the
specified time and then withdrawn. Step two, The diameter of the indentation is
measured in at lest two directions perpendicular to each other. The Brinell
hardness value is computed from the mean of the diameter measurements by the use
of a mathematical formula designed for this purpose, or more frequently from a
chart based on the formula.
The complete ASTM E 10 Standard
Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials may be obtained from ASTM International.