Charpy Impact Test:
ASTM E23

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     At WMT&R Izod and Charpy impact testing are performed on instrumented machines capable of measuring less than 1ft.lb. to 300ft. lbs. at temperatures ranging from -320°F to over 2000°F. Specimen types include notch configurations such as V-Notch, U-Notch, Key-Hole Notch, as well as Un-notched and ISO (DIN) V-Notch, with capabilities of testing subsize specimens down to 1/4 size.  IZOD testing can be done up to 240ft.lbs. on standard single notch and type-X3 specimens.

Charpy testing inventor

     The Charpy Impact Test was invented by Georges Augustin Albert Charpy (1865-1945). The Charpy test measures the energy absorbed by a standard notched specimen while breaking under an impact load. The Charpy impact test continues to be used as an economical quality control method to determine the notch sensitivity and impact toughness of engineering materials.

     The Charpy Test is commonly used on metals, but is also applied to composites, ceramics and polymers. With the Charpy test one most commonly evaluates the relative toughness of a material, as such, it is used as a quick and economical quality control device.

     The standard Charpy Test specimen consist of a bar of metal, or other material, 55x10x10mm having a notch machined across one of the larger dimensions.
   V-notch: 2mm deep, with 45° angle and 0.25mm radius along the base.
   U-notch and  keyhole notch: 5mm deep notch with 1mm radius at base of notch.

Charpy Testing Machine     The Charpy Test consist of striking a suitable specimen with a hammer on a pendulum arm while the specimen is held securely at each end. The hammer strikes opposite the notch. The energy absorbed by the specimen is determined  by precisely measuring the decrease in motion of the pendulum arm.

     Important factors that involve the toughness of a material include: low temperatures, high strain rates (by impact or pressurization), and stress concentrators such as notches cracks and voids.

     By applying the Charpy Test to identical specimens at different temperatures, and then plotting the impact energy as a function of temperature, the ductile-brittle transition becomes apparent. This is essential information to obtain when determining the minimum service temperature for a material.

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