Composites Testing

Composites Testing


Composite Materials Testing Services and Capabilities

Westmoreland Mechanical Testing & Research (WMT&R) is a world leader in composites testing.  As composite and non-metallic materials become prevalent in manufacturing applications and more complex in structure, the need for accurate, comprehensive testing of these materials continues to grow.  WMT&R is equipped to test thermoset and thermoplastic composites, laminates, fiber reinforced composites, sandwich core materials, resins, films, and adhesives.

sandwich coreSandwich core materials


WMT&R conducts composites testing at its Composites Center of Excellence.  The 45,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art facility is Nadcap certified and fully staffed with experienced, dedicated composites testing personnel.  Our supporting machine shops operate 24/7 so that we can manufacture test specimens quickly and efficiently to meet any customer schedule.

Our UK subsidiary, WMT&R, Ltd. continues to expand its Composites Testing Program to meet customers’ needs.

Mechanical Testing of Composites

composites bend testing Short Beam Shear (ASTM D2344 )

 

WMT&R’s Composites Center is equipped with an array of hydraulic, electro-mechanical, drop tower/pendulum impact test frames.  Determination of composite properties requires tension, compression and shear tests. In qualification and materials development, other test types are used to explore more complex properties, such as open hole tension/compression (OHT/OFC), inter-laminar fracture toughness, compression after impact (CAI), and fatigue.

Tests are conducted over a range of temperatures on materials that may have been conditioned in a variety of environmental conditions such as high humidity and immersion in fluids.

Thermal Analysis of Composites

dscDifferental Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)


To strengthen the depth and quality of its composites testing results, WMT&R has a range of Thermal Testing equipment at the Composites Center.  The equipment includes Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) machines.

 

Physical Testing of Composites

Despite the physical complexity of composites, WMT&R has the capabilities to test the physical properties of these materials.  Through physical testing, WMT&R is able to provide more comprehensive composites testing results to its customers. 

The WMT&R composites department is now approved and certified to perform the following physical tests:

  • Hardness Testing - Barcol
  • Hardness Testing – Durometer
  • Density/Specific Gravity
  • Resin/Fiber/Void Content by Acid
  • Resin/Fiber/Void Content by Burn-off
  • Resin/Fiber Content by Solvent Wash
  • Water Absorption
  • Volatile Content
  • Gel Time
  • Flow
  • Fiber Areal Weight
  • Prepreg Areal/Adhesive Film Weight
  • Effects of Liquids
  • Moisture Content


Standardized Tests and Individual Customer Specifications


The table below is a sampling of the standardized tests that WMT&R offers for composites.  We also test to individual customer specifications.  With the assistance of our Mechanical Engineering Department and our full service in-house Machine Shop, we are able to design and fabricate specialized fixtures for your unique testing needs.

Metallographic and Microscopic Analysis are available through our state of the art Analytical and Metallographic Labs.

 


WMT&R offers the following standardized Composites tests :


Bearing Strength

ASTM D5961 Bearing Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
ASTM D953 Bearing Strength of Plastics
AITM 1-0009 Determination of Bearing Strength by either Pin or Bolt Bearing 

Compression

AITM 1-0008-A Determination of Plain Compression Strength
AITM 1-0008-B/C/D Determination of Open Hole or Filled Hole Compression Strength
ASTM C365 Flatwise Compressive Properties of Sandwich Cores
ASTM D3410 Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials with Unsupported Gage Section by Shear Loading
ASTM D6484 Open-Hole Compressive Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
ASTM D6641 Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Using a Combined Loading Compression (CLC) Test Fixture
ASTM D6742 Filled-Hole Tension and Compression Testing of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
ASTM D695 Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics
ASTM D7137 Compressive Residual Strength Properties of Damaged Polymer Matrix Composite Plates
ASTM E9 Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature

Creep

ASTM C1181 Compressive Creep of Chemical-Resistant Polymer Machinery Grouts
ASTM C1291 Elevated Temperature Tensile Creep Strain, Creep Strain Rate, and Creep Time-to-Failure for Advanced Monolithic Ceramics
ASTM C1337  Creep and Creep Rupture of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics Under Tensile Loading at Elevated Temperatures
ASTM D7337 Tensile Creep Rupture of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars

Curved Beam Strength

ASTM D6415 Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite

Fatigue

ASTM D3479 Tension Fatigue of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
ASTM D671 Standard Test Method for Flexural Fatigue of Plastics by Constant-Amplitude-of-Force
ASTM D7774 Flexural Fatigue Properties of Plastics
ASTM D7791 Uniaxial Fatigue Properties of Plastics
ASTM E466 Conducting Force Controlled Constant Amplitude Axial Fatigue Tests of Metallic Materials
ASTM E466 Force Controlled Constant Amplitude Axial Fatigue Tests
ASTM E606 Strain-Controlled Fatigue Testing

Flexure

ASTM C1161  Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM C393 Core Shear Properties of Sandwich Constructions by Beam Flexure
ASTM D4812 Unnotched Cantilever Beam Impact Resistance of Plastics
ASTM D6272 Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials by Four-Point Bending
ASTM D6395 Flatwise Flexural Impact Resistance of Rigid Plastics
ASTM D6416 Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load
ASTM D7249 Facing Properties of Sandwich Constructions by Long Beam Flexure
ASTM D7250 Determining Sandwich Beam Flexural and Shear Stiffness
ASTM D7264 Flexural Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
ASTM D790 Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials

Fracture Toughness

AITM 1-0005 Determination of interlaminar fracture toughness energy. Mode I.
ASTM D5528 Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
ASTM D6671 Mixed Mode I-Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
ASTM E1922 Translaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated and Pultruded Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

Impact

ASTM D256 Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics
ASTM D3763 High Speed Puncture Properties of Plastics Using Load and Displacement Sensors
ASTM D5420 Impact Resistance of Flat, Rigid Plastic Specimen by Means of a Striker Impacted by a Falling Weight (Gardner Impact)
ASTM D6110 Charpy Impact Resistance of Notched Specimens of Plastics
ASTM D7136 Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite to a Drop-Weight Impact Event
ASTM D7766 Damage Resistance Testing of Sandwich Constructions

Peel Resistance

ASTM D1781 Climbing Drum Peel for Adhesives 
ASTM D3167 Floating Roller Peel Resistance of Adhesives
ASTM D903  Peel or Stripping Strength of Adhesive Bonds

Pull-Through

AITM 1-0066 Pull-Through Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Mechanical Joints
ASTM D7332 Measuring the Fastener Pull-Through Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite

Shear

ASTM C273 Shear Properties of Sandwich Core Materials
ASTM D1002 Apparent Shear Strength of Single-Lap-Joint Adhesively Bonded Metal Specimens by Tension Loading (Metal-to-Metal)
ASTM D2344 Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials and Their Laminates
ASTM D3163 Determining Strength of Adhesively Bonded Rigid Plastic Lap-Shear Joints in Shear by Tension Loading
ASTM D3164 Strength Properties of Adhesively Bonded Plastic Lap-Shear Sandwich Joints in Shear by Tension Loading
ASTM D3165 Strength Properties of Adhesives in Shear by Tension Loading of Single-Lap-Joint Laminated Assemblies
ASTM D3518 In-Plane Shear Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by Tensile Test of a ±45° Laminate
ASTM D3846 In-Plane Shear Strength of Reinforced Plastics
ASTM D4255 In-Plane Shear Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by the Rail Shear Method
ASTM D5379 Shear Properties of Composite Materials by the V-Notched Beam Method
ASTM D7078 Shear Properties of Composite Materials by V-Notched Rail Shear Method
ASTM D732 Shear Strength of Plastics by Punch Tool
ASTM D7617 Transverse Shear Strength of Fiber-reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars
ASTM F1044 Shear Testing of Calcium Phosphate Coatings and Metallic Coatings

Tensile

AITM 1-0007 Tensile Properties of Plain, Open-Hole, and Filled-Hole Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
ASTM C297 Flatwise Tensile Strength of Sandwich Constructions
ASTM D3039 Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
ASTM D5766 Open-Hole Tensile Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
ASTM D638 Tensile Properties of Plastics
ASTM D6742 Filled-Hole Tension and Compression Testing of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
ASTM D7205 Tensile Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars
ASTM F1147 Tension Testing of Calcium Phosphate and Metallic Coatings
SACMA RM 4 Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
SACMA RM 9 Tensile Properties of Oriented Cross-Plied Fiber-Resin Composites

Physical Properties

ASTM D2240 Rubber Property—Durometer Hardness
ASTM D2583 Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of a Barcol Impressor
ASTM D792 Density and Specific Gravity (relative density) of Plastics by Displacement
ASTM D3171 (Proced. A) Constituent Content of Composite Materials (nitric acid digestion)
ASTM D3171 (Proced. B) Constituent Content of Composite Materials (sulfuric acid)
ASTM D3171 (Proced. C) Constituent Content of Composite Materials (ethylene glycol/potassium hydroxide)
ASTM D3171 (Proced. D) Constituent Content of Composite Materials (sodium hydroxide)
ASTM D3171 (Proced. E) Constituent Content of Composite Materials (hydrochloric acid)
ASTM D3171 (Proced. F) Constituent Content of Composite Materials (nitric acid/microwave oven)
ASTM D3171 (Proced. G) Constituent Content of Composite Materials (burn off)
ASTM D3529  Matrix Solids Content and Matrix Content of Composite Prepreg (solvent wash)
ASTM D3530 Volatiles Content of Composite Material Prepreg
ASTM D570 Water Absorption of Plastics
ASTM D3532  Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg
ASTM D3531 Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg
EN 2557 Fiber Areal Weight
EN 2557 Prepreg Areal/Adhesive Film Weight
ASTM D471 Rubber Property—Effect of Liquids
ASTM D1364 Moisture Content

Thermal Analysis

ASTM D3418 Transition Temperatures and Enthalpies of Fusion and Crystallization of Polymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
ASTM D3850 Rapid Thermal Degradation of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials By Thermogravimetric Method (TGA) 
ASTM D5023 Plastics: Dynamic Mechanical Properties: In Flexure (Three-Point Bending)
ASTM D5024 Plastics: Dynamic Mechanical Properties: In Compression
ASTM D696 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics Between −30°C and 30°C with a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer
ASTM D7028 Glass Transition Temperature (DMA Tg) of Polymer Matrix Composites by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)
ASTM E1131 Compositional Analysis by Thermogravimetry (TGA)
ASTM E1269 Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
ASTM E1356 Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
ASTM E1545 Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperature by Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)
ASTM E1640 Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperature By Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
ASTM E1867 Temperature Calibration of Dynamic Mechanical Analyzers
ASTM E595 Total Mass Loss and Collected Volatile Condensable Materials from Outgassing in a Vacuum Environment
ASTM E831 Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)
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